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学科主题: 地球科学::地质学
题名: 祁连山晚新生代隆升变形过程的盆地记录
作者: 刘栋梁
答辩日期: 2008-06-03
导师: 方小敏
专业: 构造地质学
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
学位: 博士
关键词: 青藏高原隆升 ;  柴达木盆地 ;  酒泉盆地 ;  磁性地层学 ;  地壳缩短变形
索取号: S000013
部门归属: 图书馆
摘要: 青藏高原东北部受控于三大断裂系:阿尔金断裂系、东昆仑断裂系和祁连断裂系,该区域成为解决青藏高原隆升的关键部分,祁连山南北两侧的柴达木盆地和酒泉盆地新生代地层较发育,此两大盆地为青藏高原东北缘隆升提供了理想的研究场所。本文主要通过祁连山南北两侧柴达木盆地红沟子剖面和酒泉盆地榆木山地区肃南-榆木山剖面晚新生代地层系统的高精度磁性地层研究,揭示柴达木盆地红沟子剖面晚新生代地层年代约为:上油砂山组16.5-9.8 Ma;狮子沟组9.1-4.8 Ma;酒泉盆地肃南剖面晚新生代地层年代约为:白杨河组>27.07-<24.73 Ma,疏勒河组>13.51-<9.58 Ma;酒泉盆地榆木山剖面晚新生代地层年代约为:疏勒河组顶部约5.23 Ma,玉门砾岩约3.58-0.93 Ma,酒泉砾岩底部约0.84 Ma。柴达木盆地红沟子剖面及周边地区地震地层、钻探岩芯、岩性变化、沉积相、古水流、沉积速率、地层接触关系、断裂-生长地层分析等综合研究,揭示该区中新世以来经受七期构造隆升事件:~16.5、14.61-13.70、12.40-11.94、9.8-9.1、8.07-7.34、6.57-5.89、4.8-2.5 Ma,其中发生在~16.5、9.8-9.1和4.8-2.5 Ma的构造抬升事件最强烈,分别在盆地边缘形成显著的角度或平行不整合面及其相应的生长地层;而酒泉盆地榆木山地区渐新世以来经受了五期构造隆升事件:约早中新世初(<24.73->13.51 Ma)、~10、5.23-3.58、2.88-2.58和0.93-0.84 Ma,除约10Ma的构造抬升主要为地层沉积速率和沉积相变化外,其余均表现为显著的平行或角度不整合面。结合全盆地石油地震地质大剖面的平衡剖面恢复研究表明,柴达木盆地新生代地层地壳缩短变形可为分两个大的缓慢期和两个大的快速期,两个快速期分别为中晚始新世-早渐新世(约42.8-31.5 Ma)和中中新世以来(约15.3-0 Ma),尤其约8-2.6 Ma以来最强烈,缓慢期缩短率小(<10%)、缩短速率低(约<0.3 mm/yr),快速期缩短率较大(>10%)、缩短速率较高(约>0.4 mm/yr),约2.5 Ma以来缩短率达到整个新生代缩短量的30%以上,且缩短速率急剧增加超过3 mm/yr;酒泉盆地可分为两个大的快速期和一个大的缓慢期:两个快速期分别为中晚始新世-早渐新世(约40.2-33.4 Ma)和晚中新世以来(约8.3-0 Ma),缓慢期缩短率小(<20%)、缩短速率低(约<10 mm/kyr),快速期缩短率较大(>20%)、缩短速率较高(约>10 mm/yr),约3.66 Ma以来缩短率达到整个新生代缩短量的30%以上,且缩短速率急剧增加超过30 mm/kyr。综合剖面构造沉积研究和平衡剖面分析结果,它们共同表明祁连山南北两侧隆升基本同时进行,总体可分为两个大的旋回,而每个旋回内存在多期构造隆升事件,其中最后一个旋回,尤其~10-8 Ma以来祁连山产生了最快速的急剧隆升,形成今天的构造地貌格局,整个变形隆升过程基本上具有同步异幅特征,不存在过去西方学者普遍认为的东北向逐步生长机制。
英文摘要: The Qaidam Basin and the Jiuquan Basin with thick Cenozoic sediments, in the south and north of the Qilian Shan respectively, are the keys to study the late Cenozoic uplift of the Tibetan Plateau for their special location, which is controlled by three important fault systems, the Altyn Tangh Fault System in the west, the Eastern Kunlun Fault System in the south and the Qilian Fault System in the north. In this paper, the high-resolution magnetostratigraphic study was done in the Honggouzi section in Qaidam Basin and Su’nan-Yumushan section in the Jiuquan Basin. The result of the Honggouzi section shows that the ages of the Shan Youshashan Fm. and Shizigou Fm. are at ca. 16.5-9.8 and 9.1-4.8 Ma, respectively. The result of the Su’nan section shows the ages of Baiyanghe Fm. and Shulehe Fm. are at ca. >27.07-<24.73 and >13.51-<9.58 Ma, respectively. And the result of the Yumushan section shows that the ages of Shulehe Fm., Yumen Conglomerates Fm. and Jiuquan Gravels Fm are at ca. >5.23, 3.58-0.93 and <0.84 Ma, respectively. The synthetic study of the seismic stratigraphy, drill core, lithological change, sedimentary facies, paleocurrent, sedimentary rate, strata contacting features, fault-growth strata at the Honggouzi area in the Qaidam Basin reveals that they have experienced seven times of tectonic uplifts since the Miocene, at ages ~16.5, 14.61-13.70, 12.40-11.94, 9.8-9.1, 8.07-7.34, 6.57-5.89 and 4.8-2.5 Ma, respectively, in this region and surrounding plateau, and three stongest evenets happened at ca. ~16.5, 9.8-9.1 and 4.8-2.5 Ma among these events, which formed the parallel or angular unconformity and related growth strata. What’s more, the sam study of the Su’nan–Yumu Shan section in the Jiuquan Basin reveals that five events happened since the Oligocene, at early Miocene (<24.73->13.51 Ma), ~10, 5.23-3.58, 2.88-2.58, 0.93-0.84 Ma, respectively. The movement at ~10 Ma is charactered by the change of the sedimentary rate and sedimentary facies, the others are all charactered with obvious paralled or angular unconformity. Moreover, the balance section restoration for the geological seismic profiles in the central and eastern of the Qaidam Basin indicate that during the middle-late Eocene – early Oligocene (~42.8-31.5 Ma) and since the middle Miocene (~15.3-0 Ma) crustal shortening deformation are stronger than the other periods, especially most strongerest since 8-2.5 Ma in the Qaidam Basin and related Tibetan Plateau. During the slowly shortening periods, the shortening ratio is less than 10% and the shortening rate is less than 0.3 mm/yr. While during the rapid shortening periods, the shortening ratio is more than 10% and the shortening rate is more than 0.4 mm/yr, especially since ca. 2.5 Ma, the shortening ratio is more than 30% and the shortening rate is more than 3 mm/yr. As well as, two phases of the rapid crustal shortening deformation happened during middle-late Eocene – early Oligocene (~40.2-33.4 Ma) and since middle Miocene (~8.3-0 Ma) in the Jiuquan Basin and related Tibetan Plateau. During the slowly shortening phase, the shortening ratio is less than 20% and the shortening rate is less than 10 mm/kyr. While during the rapid shortening phases, the shortening ratio is more than 20% and the shortening rate is more than 10 mm/kyr, especially since ca. 3.66 Ma, the shortening ratio is more than 30% and the shortening rate is more than 30 mm/kyr. The results of the structural sediment and balance section reveal that the both side of the Qilian Shan have almost experienced the simultaneous uplift, and the uplift had a character with two similar large cycles with almost the same multistage movements in time. During the late, especially since ~10-8 Ma, the abrupt uplift took place in the Qilian Shan and it’s around region, and formed the current morphotectonic pattern. In generally, the deformation and uplift of the Qilian Shan, with the feature of synchronization and different amplitude, is not the result of the stepwise uplift and propagating NE ward growth.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.itpcas.ac.cn/handle/131C11/1230
Appears in Collections:图书馆_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
刘栋梁.祁连山晚新生代隆升变形过程的盆地记录[博士].北京.中国科学院研究生院.2008
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