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学科主题: 地球科学::地质学
题名: 利用接收函数研究青藏高原中西部壳幔结构
作者: 徐强
答辩日期: 2009-06-02
导师: 赵俊猛
专业: 构造地质学
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
学位: 博士
关键词: 青藏高原 ;  ANTILOPE ;  LAB ;  地幔过渡带 ;  P波接收函数 ;  S波接收函数
索取号: S000018
部门归属: 图书馆
组织者: 中国科学院青藏高原研究所
摘要: 青藏高原的隆升源于~50 Ma以前印度板块和欧亚板块的碰撞以及碰撞后印度板块的持续北进所引起的板内汇聚作用。然而,印度-欧亚板块的汇聚模式,特别是印度板块俯冲的模式以及北部边界仍存在很大争议。地震观测数据的日益积累以及地震学方法的推陈出新,极大地促进了对于正在进行的印度-欧亚板块碰撞的深部地球动力学过程的理解。论文利用位于青藏高原中西部的ANTILOPE-I, II两条流动地震剖面记录的远震数据,采用P波和S波接收函数方法获取了青藏高原中西部详细的地壳上地幔结构,主要研究结果如下: 1) 青藏高原中西部的Moho深度在南北向都具有比较复杂的变化形态:Moho在ANTILOPE-I剖面的羌塘地体下方存在一个凹陷,而在ANTILOPE-II剖面,Moho在YZS附近达到最深,在拉萨地体下方其形态较为平坦。 2) 青藏高原中西部的泊松比的平均值均为0.26 ± 0.02, 揭示出地壳物质组分主要为中酸性岩石。缺乏普遍高的泊松比分布排除了青藏高原中西部地壳存在广泛分布的部分熔融的可能性,但是不排除局部部分熔融的存在。 3) 在青藏高原西部,印度岩石圈从南部以较大的倾角俯冲到拉萨地体的中部,然后近水平至少延伸到35° N;而在青藏高原中部,印度岩石圈从南部近水平俯冲到拉萨地体中部,然后往北向下俯冲,在32° N附近消失。 4) 青藏高原岩石圈在ANTILOPE-II剖面北段存在,没有被印度板块和亚洲板块的俯冲全部改造,而在ANTILOPE-I剖面已经不存在。 5) 塔里木盆地岩石圈沿ANTILOPE-I剖面没有向南俯冲在青藏高原下方。 6) 青藏高原中西部的地幔过渡带的厚度基本维持不变,说明地幔过渡带内不存在明显的温度变化,印度-欧亚板块碰撞过程所引起的构造活动以及岩石圈变形都局限于410 km以上。 7) 410和660 在ANTILOPE-I剖面基本保持水平,和IASP91模型保持一致。而在ANITLOPE-II剖面,其走时在剖面北侧和IASP91模型相比,存在~2s的延迟,表明剖面北段的地壳与上地幔比南侧具有较低的S波速度和较高的上地幔温度。这些观测结果与剖面北段青藏高原岩石圈的存在相联系。
英文摘要: Uplift of the Tibetan Plateau is a result of the India-Eurasia collision and continuous northward penetration of the Indian lithosphere starting around 50 Ma ago. However, the mode of convergence between the Indian and Asian plates, especially the northern limit and the subduction geometry of India lithosphere, is still debate. The increasing seismic data of the Tibetan Plateau and the newly developed seismic technologies have greatly promoted the understanding of the ongoing deep geodynamics of the collision between Indian and Asian plates. This dissertation mainly deals with detailed crust and upper mantle structure and geodynamic processes of the Tibetan Plateau. The teleseismic data recorded by the ANTILOPE portable seismic profiles located in the Western and Central Tibetan Plateau were analyzed by P and S receiver function methods. The main results are as follows. 1) The Moho depths show complicate variations from south to north beneath western and central Tibetan Plateau. A Moho trough is found beneath Qiangtang terrane along ANTILOPE-I profile. The Moho reaches its maximal depth nearby YZS and keeps flattening beneath Lhasa terrane along ANTILOPE-II profile. 2) The average Poisson’s ratio of the western and central Tibetan Plateau is about 0.26 ± 0.02, indicating that the crust is mainly composed of felsic and intermediate rocks. The lack of consistent high Poisson’s ratio excludes the possibility of widespread partial melt within the curst, but does not deny the presence of the local partial melt. 3) In the western Tibetan Plateau, the Indian lithosphere underthrusts northward to the central Lhasa terrane with a high angle, and then extends horizontally to at least 35° N. However, in the central Tibetan Plateau, the Indian lithosphere subducts horizontally to the central Lhasa terrane, and then subducts downward, disappearing nearby 32° N. 4) Tibetan lithosphere, which does not fully modified by the subduction of Indian and Asian lithospheric mantles, still exists in the northern ANTILOPE-II profile. But it is not found in ANTILOPE-I profile. 5) There is no evidence to demonstrate the southward subduction of Tarim basin beneath Western Tibetan plateau in ANTILOPE-I profile. 6) The mantle transition zone remains a constant thickness beneath the western and central Tibetan Plateau, implying that there is no significant temperature variation within the transition zone, and the tectonic activities and lithospheric deformation caused by the India-Asia collision are confined to the depths above 410 km. 7) In ANTILOPE-I profile, the 410-km and 660-km discontinuities keep horizontal approximately, which agrees well to the IASP91 model. However, in ANTILOPE-II profile, both the 410-km and 660-km discontinuities in the northern part of the profile appear ~2 s later than the global average, which may be attributed to a lower shear wave velocity and a higher temperature in the crust and upper mantle, compared with the southern part of the profile. This observation is also related to the existence of Tibetan lithosphere in northern part of ANTILOPE-II profile.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.itpcas.ac.cn/handle/131C11/1234
Appears in Collections:图书馆_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
徐强.利用接收函数研究青藏高原中西部壳幔结构[博士].北京.中国科学院研究生院.2009
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