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Re-evaluating black carbon in the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau: concentrations and deposition
Li, CL (Li, Chaoliu)1,3,4; Yan, FP (Yan, Fangping)3; Kang, SC (Kang, Shichang)2,4; Chen, PF (Chen, Pengfei)2; Han, XW (Han, Xiaowen)1,5; Hu, ZF (Hu, Zhaofu)2,5; Zhang, GS (Zhang, Guoshuai)1; Hong, Y (Hong, Ye)6; Gao, SP (Gao, Shaopeng)1; Qu, B (Qu, Bin)3; Zhu, ZJ (Zhu, Zhejing)7; Li, JW (Li, Jiwei)7; Chen, B (Chen, Bing); Sillanpaa, M (Sillanpaa, Mika)3,8; Li, CL
AbstractBlack carbon (BC) is the second most important warming component in the atmosphere after CO2. The BC in the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau (HTP) has influenced the Indian monsoon and accelerated the retreat of glaciers, resulting in serious consequences for billions of Asian residents. Although a number of related studies have been conducted in this region, the BC concentrations and deposition rates remain poorly constrained. Because of the presence of arid environments and the potential influence of carbonates in mineral dust (MD), the reported BC concentrations in the HTP are overestimated. In addition, large discrepancies have been reported among the BC deposition derived from lake cores, ice cores, snow pits and models. Therefore, the actual BC concentration and deposition values in this sensitive region must be determined. A comparison between the BC concentrations in acid (HCl)-treated and untreated total suspected particle samples from the HTP showed that the BC concentrations previously reported for the Nam Co station (central part of the HTP) and the Everest station (northern slope of the central Himalayas) were overestimated by approximately 52 +/- 35 and 39 +/- 24 %, respectively, because of the influence of carbonates in MD. Additionally, the organic carbon (OC) levels were overestimated by approxi-mately 22 +/- 10 and 22 +/- 12% for the same reason. Based on previously reported values from the study region, we propose that the actual BC concentrations at the Nam Co and Everest stations are 61 and 154 ngm 3, respectively. Furthermore, a comprehensive comparison of the BC deposition rates obtained via different methods indicated that the deposition of BC in HTP lake cores was mainly related to river sediment transport from the lake basin as a result of climate change (e.g., increases in temperature and precipitation) and that relatively little BC deposition occurred via atmospheric deposition. Therefore, previously reported BC deposition rates from lake cores overestimated the atmospheric deposition of BC in the HTP. Correspondingly, BC deposition derived from snow pits and ice cores agreed well with that derived from models, implying that the BC depositions of these two methods reflect the actual values in the HTP. Therefore, based on reported values from snow pits and ice cores, we propose that the BC deposition in the HTP is 17 : 9 +/- 5 : 3 mgm(-2) a(-1), with higher and lower values appearing along the fringes and central areas of the HTP, respectively. These adjusted BC concentrations and deposition values in the HTP are critical for performing accurate evaluations of other BC factors, such as atmospheric distribution, radiative forcing and chemical transport in the HTP.
Subject Area自然地理学
WOS IDWOS:000412582100001
Indexed BySCI
KeywordLight-absorbing Impurities Nam-co Basin p 5079 m Elemental Carbon Lake-sediments Absorption Characteristics Chemical Characteristics Continental-shelf Source Regions Aerosol Mass
WOS Research AreaMeteorology & Atmospheric Sciences
WOS SubjectMeteorology & Atmospheric Sciences
Cooperation Status国际
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Document Type期刊论文
Corresponding AuthorLi, CL
Affiliation1.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Tibetan Plateau Res, Key Lab Tibetan Environm Changes & Land Surface P, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China.
2.Chinese Acad Sci, Northwest Inst Ecoenvironm & Resources, State Key Lab Cryospher Sci, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu, Peoples R China.
3.Lappeenranta Univ Technol, Lab Green Chem, Sammonkatu 12, Mikkeli 50130, Finland.
4.CAS Ctr Excellence Tibetan Plateau Earth Sci, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China.
5.Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China.
6.China Meteorol Adm, Inst Atmospher Environm, Shenyang 110166, Liaoning, Peoples R China.
7.Shandong Univ, Environm Res Inst, Jinan 250100, Shandong, Peoples R China.
8.Florida Int Univ, Dept Civil & Environm Engn, Miami, FL 33174 USA
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Li, CL ,Yan, FP ,Kang, SC ,et al. Re-evaluating black carbon in the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau: concentrations and deposition[J]. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS,2017,17(19):11899-11912.
APA Li, CL .,Yan, FP .,Kang, SC .,Chen, PF .,Han, XW .,...&Li, CL.(2017).Re-evaluating black carbon in the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau: concentrations and deposition.ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS,17(19),11899-11912.
MLA Li, CL ,et al."Re-evaluating black carbon in the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau: concentrations and deposition".ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS 17.19(2017):11899-11912.
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