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Evaluation of WRF Simulations With Different Selections of Subgrid Orographic Drag Over the Tibetan Plateau
Zhou, X (Zhou, X.)1; Beljaars, A (Beljaars, A.)2; Wang, Y (Wang, Y.)1,3; Huang, B (Huang, B.)4; Lin, C (Lin, C.)5; Chen, Y (Chen, Y.)1; Wu, H (Wu, H.)6; Zhou, X
Source PublicationJOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES
2017
Volume122Issue:18Pages:9759-9772
DOI10.1002/2017JD027212
AbstractWeather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulations with different selections of subgrid orographic drag over the Tibetan Plateau have been evaluated with observation and ERA-Interim reanalysis. Results show that the subgrid orographic drag schemes, especially the turbulent orographic form drag (TOFD) scheme, efficiently reduce the 10 m wind speed bias and RMS error with respect to station measurements. With the combination of gravity wave, flow blocking and TOFD schemes, wind speed is simulated more realistically than with the individual schemes only. Improvements are also seen in the 2 m air temperature and surface pressure. The gravity wave drag, flow blocking drag, and TOFD schemes combined have the smallest station mean bias (-2.05 degrees C in 2 m air temperature and 1.27 hPa in surface pressure) and RMS error (3.59 degrees C in 2 m air temperature and 2.37 hPa in surface pressure). Meanwhile, the TOFD scheme contributes more to the improvements than the gravity wave drag and flow blocking schemes. The improvements are more pronounced at low levels of the atmosphere than at high levels due to the stronger drag enhancement on the low-level flow. The reduced near-surface cold bias and high-pressure bias over the Tibetan Plateau are the result of changes in the low-level wind components associated with the geostrophic balance. The enhanced drag directly leads to weakened westerlies but also enhances the a-geostrophic flow in this case reducing (enhancing) the northerlies (southerlies), which bring more warm air across the Himalaya Mountain ranges from South Asia (bring less cold air from the north) to the interior Tibetan Plateau.
Subject Area自然地理学
WOS IDWOS:000416388000013
Language英语
Indexed BySCI
KeywordGravity-wave-drag Office Unified Model General-circulation Anisotropic Orography Boundary-layer Era-interim Parametrization Representation Impact Flow
WOS Research AreaMeteorology & Atmospheric Sciences
WOS SubjectMeteorology & Atmospheric Sciences ; Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences
Cooperation Status国际
Citation statistics
Cited Times:3[WOS]   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.itpcas.ac.cn/handle/131C11/7987
Collection图书馆
Corresponding AuthorZhou, X
Affiliation1.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Tibetan Plateau Res, Key Lab Tibetan Environm Changes & Land Surface P, Beijing, Peoples R China.
2.ECMWF, Reading, Berks, England.
3.Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China.
4.Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Energy & Proc Engn, Trondheim, Norway.
5.Univ Gothenburg, Dept Earth Sci, Reg Climate Grp, Gothenburg, Sweden.
6.Chinese Acad Meteorol Sci, State Key Lab Severe Weather, Beijing, Peoples R China.
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Zhou, X ,Beljaars, A ,Wang, Y ,et al. Evaluation of WRF Simulations With Different Selections of Subgrid Orographic Drag Over the Tibetan Plateau[J]. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES,2017,122(18):9759-9772.
APA Zhou, X .,Beljaars, A .,Wang, Y .,Huang, B .,Lin, C .,...&Zhou, X.(2017).Evaluation of WRF Simulations With Different Selections of Subgrid Orographic Drag Over the Tibetan Plateau.JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES,122(18),9759-9772.
MLA Zhou, X ,et al."Evaluation of WRF Simulations With Different Selections of Subgrid Orographic Drag Over the Tibetan Plateau".JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES 122.18(2017):9759-9772.
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