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Paleogene monsoons across India and South China: Drivers of biotic change
Spicer, R (Spicer, Robert)1,2; Yang, J (Yang, Jian)3; Herman, A (Herman, Alexei)4; Kodrul, T (Kodrul, Tatiana)1,4; Aleksandrova, G (Aleksandrova, Galina)4; Maslova, N (Maslova, Natalia)5; Spicer, T (Spicer, Teresa)3; Ding, L (Ding, Lin)6; Xu, Q (Xu, Qiang)6; Shukla, A (Shukla, Anumeha)7; Srivastava, G (Srivastava, Gaurav)7; Mehrotra, R (Mehrotra, Rakesh)7; Liu, XY (Liu, Xiao-Yan)1; Jin, JH (Jin, Jian-Hua)1; Liu, XY; Jin, JH
AbstractMonsoonal climates at low latitudes (<32 degrees N) are an inevitable consequence of seasonal migrations of the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), but the character of these monsoons depends on continental configuration, oro-graphic expression and the strength of Hadley circulation. To explore the evolution of monsoon systems across southern Asia we compare climate signatures archived in ten Paleogene floras from northern India, Tibet and southern China, occupying low palaeolatitudes at a time of extreme global warmth and elevated CO2. Fossil leaf form reveals that under such 'hothouse' conditions megathermal early Eocene to earliest Miocene forests were exposed to strong monsoonal climates typical of those experienced today arising from annual migrations of the ITCZ, possibly enhanced by a lower equator-to-pole temperature gradient. Throughout the Paleogene an elevated Tibetan highland produced no discernable modification of this ITCZ monsoon, although rainfall seasonality similar to that of the modern South Asia Monsoon (SAM) is observed in northern India as early as the beginning of the Eocene, despite its near-equatorial palaeoposition. In South China rainfall seasonality increased progressively achieving modem monsoon-like wet season/dry season precipitation ratios by the early Oligocene. Despite evidencing weak rainfall seasonality overall, fossil leaves from South China have exhibited monsoon-adapted morphologies, comparable to those seen in today's Indonesia-Australia Monsoon, for at least 45 million years. Together, the Indian and South China fossil leaf assemblages show that the evolution of megathermal ecosystems across southern Asia has been influenced profoundly by monsoonal climates for at least the last 56 million years. The Paleogene ITCZ-driven monsoon system strongly impacted India as it transited the Equator likely eliminating Gondwanan taxa not able to adapt to seasonal precipitation extremes. Furthermore, powerful seasonally-reversing winds, and associated surface ocean currents, are likely to have facilitated two-way biotic transfer between India and Eurasia long before closure of the Tethys Ocean. (C) 2017 International Association for Gondwana Research. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Subject Area地质学
WOS IDWOS:000414383200018
KeywordPaleoequatorial Rain-forest Asia Continental Collision Vastan Lignite Mine Shale Lower Eocene Oligocene Sediments Tibetan Plateau Northwest India Basin Evolution Summer Monsoon Linzhou Basin
WOS Research AreaGeology
WOS SubjectGeosciences, Multidisciplinary
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Document Type期刊论文
Corresponding AuthorLiu, XY; Jin, JH
Affiliation1.Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Life Sci, Guangdong Prov Key Lab Plant Resources, State Key Lab Biocontrol, Guangzhou 510275, Guangdong, Peoples R China.
2.Open Univ, Sch Environm Earth & Ecosyst Sci, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, Bucks, England.
3.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Bot, State Key Lab Systemat & Evolutionary Bot, Beijing 100093, Peoples R China.
4.Russian Acad Sci, Geol Inst, Moscow 119017, Russia.
5.Russian Acad Sci, Borissiak Paleontol Inst, Moscow 117647, Russia.
6.Chinese Acad Sci, Ctr Excellence Tibetan Plateau Earth Sci, Inst Tibetan Plateau Res, Key Lab Continental Collis & Plateau Uplift, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China.
7.Birbal Sahni Inst Paleobot, Lucknow 226007, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Spicer, R ,Yang, J ,Herman, A ,et al. Paleogene monsoons across India and South China: Drivers of biotic change[J]. GONDWANA RESEARCH,2017,49(0):350-363.
APA Spicer, R .,Yang, J .,Herman, A .,Kodrul, T .,Aleksandrova, G .,...&Jin, JH.(2017).Paleogene monsoons across India and South China: Drivers of biotic change.GONDWANA RESEARCH,49(0),350-363.
MLA Spicer, R ,et al."Paleogene monsoons across India and South China: Drivers of biotic change".GONDWANA RESEARCH 49.0(2017):350-363.
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