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Spatiotemporal variations of hydrogeochemistry and its controlling factors in the Gandaki River Basin, Central Himalaya Nepal
Pant, RR (Pant, Ramesh Raj)1,2,3,4,5; Zhang, F (Zhang, Fan)1,2,3,4; Rehman, FU (Rehman, Faizan Ur)1,2,3,4,6; Wang, GX (Wang, Guanxing)1,2,3,4; Ye, M (Ye, Ming)7; Zeng, C (Zeng, Chen)1,2; Tang, HD (Tang, Handuo)1,2,3,4
Source PublicationSCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT
2018-05-01
Volume622-623Issue:0Pages:770-782
DOI10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.12.063
Abstract

The characterization and assessment of water quality in the head water region of Himalaya is necessary, given the immense importance of this region in sustaining livelihoods of people and maintaining ecological balance. A total of 165 water samples were collected from 55 sites during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons in 2016 from the Gandaki River Basin of the Central Himalaya, Nepal. The pH, EC values and TDS concentrations were measured in-situ and the concentrations of major ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, Cl-, SO42-, NO3-) and Si were analyzed in laboratory. Correlation matrices, paired t-test, cluster analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), the Piper, Gibbs, and Mixing plots, and saturation index were applied to the measurements for evaluating spatiotemporal variation of the major ions. The results reveal mildly alkaline pH values and the following pattern of average ionic dominance: Ca2+ >Mg2+ >Na+ > K+ for cations and HCO3- > SO42- > Cl- > NO3- for anions. The results of PCA, Gibbs plot and the ionic relationships displayed the predominance of geogenic weathering processes in areas with carbonate dominant lithology. This conclusion is supported by geochemically different water facies identified in the Piper plot as Ca-HCO3 (83.03%), mixed Ca-Mg-Cl (12.73.0%) and Ca-Cl (4.24%). Pronounced spatiotemporal heterogeneity demonstrates the influence of climatic, geogenic and anthropogenic conditions. For instance, the Ca2+-SO42-, Mg2+-SO42- and Na+-Cl-pairs exhibit strong positive correlation with each other in the upstream region, whereas relatively weak correlation in the downstream region, likely indicating the influence of evapo-crystallization processes in the upstream region. Analyses of the suitability of the water supply for drinking and irrigation reveal that the river has mostly retained its natural water quality but poses safety concern at a few locations. Knowledge obtained through this study can contribute to the sustainable management of water quality in the climatically and lithologically distinct segments of the Himalayan river basins. (c) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Subject Area地理学
WOS IDWOS:000426349000080
Language英语
Indexed BySCIE
KeywordMajor-element Chemistry Tropical Mountain River Southern Western-ghats Weathering Processes Seasonal-variation Ion Chemistry Water-quality Indus River Land-use Geochemistry
WOS Research AreaEnvironmental Sciences & Ecology
WOS SubjectEnvironmental Sciences
Cooperation Status国际
ISSN0048-9697
Department环境变化与地表过程重点实验室
PublisherELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Citation statistics
Cited Times:12[WOS]   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.itpcas.ac.cn/handle/131C11/8670
Collection图书馆
Corresponding AuthorZhang, F (Zhang, Fan)
Affiliation1.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Tibetan Plateau Res, Key Lab Tibetan Environm Changes & Land Surface P, Beijing, Peoples R China;
2.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Tibetan Plateau Res, Key Lab Alpine Ecol & Biodivers, Beijing, Peoples R China;
3.CAS Ctr Excellence Tibetan Plateau Earth Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China;
4.Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China;
5.Tribhuvan Univ, Cent Dept Environm Sci, Kirtipur, Nepal;
6.COMSATS Inst Informat Technol, Dept Earth Sci, Abbottabad, Pakistan;
7.Florida State Univ, Dept Earth Ocean & Atmospher Sci, Tallahassee, FL 32306 USA.
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Pant, RR ,Zhang, F ,Rehman, FU ,et al. Spatiotemporal variations of hydrogeochemistry and its controlling factors in the Gandaki River Basin, Central Himalaya Nepal[J]. SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT,2018,622-623(0):770-782.
APA Pant, RR .,Zhang, F .,Rehman, FU .,Wang, GX .,Ye, M .,...&Tang, HD .(2018).Spatiotemporal variations of hydrogeochemistry and its controlling factors in the Gandaki River Basin, Central Himalaya Nepal.SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT,622-623(0),770-782.
MLA Pant, RR ,et al."Spatiotemporal variations of hydrogeochemistry and its controlling factors in the Gandaki River Basin, Central Himalaya Nepal".SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT 622-623.0(2018):770-782.
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