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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the urban atmosphere of Nepal: Distribution, sources, seasonal trends, and cancer risk
Pokhrel, B (Pokhrel, Balram)1,3,4; Gong, P (Gong, Ping)1,2; Wang, XP (Wang, Xiaoping)1,2,3; Wang, CF (Wang, Chuanfei)1,2; Gao, SP (Gao, Shaoping)1
Source PublicationSCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT 
2018-03-15
Volume618Issue:0Pages:1583-1590
DOI10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.329
Abstract

Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban areas have always been a global concern, as these areas are considered to be the source region. Despite studies on the concentrations of PAHs in water, soils and sediments, knowledge of the distribution patterns, seasonality and sources of PAHs in urban areas of Nepal remains limited. In this study, polyurethane foam passive air samplers were used to measure gas-phase PAH concentrations over different land types in three major cities of Nepal-namely, Kathmandu (the capital) and Pokhara (both densely populated cities), and Hetauda (an agricultural city). The average concentrations of Sigma 15PAHs in ng/m(3) were 16.1 +/- 7.0 (6.4-28.6), 14.1 +/- 6.2 (6.8-29.4) and 11.1 +/- 9.0 (4.1-38.0) in Kathmandu, Pokhara and Hetauda, respectively. Molecular diagnostic ratio analysis suggested that fossil fuel combustion was a common PAH source for all three cities. In addition to this, coal combustion in Kathmandu, vehicle emissions in Pokhara, and grass/wood combustion in Hetauda were also possible sources of PAHs. In terms of cancer risk from PAH inhalation, a religious site with intense incense burning, a brick production area where extensive coal combustion is common, and a market place with heavy traffic emission, were associated with a higher risk than other areas. There were no clear seasonal trends in atmospheric PAHs. The estimated cancer risk due to inhalation of gas-phase PAHs exceeded the USEPA standard at >90% of the sites. (c) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Subject Area地理学
WOS IDWOS:000424130500157
Language英语
Indexed BySCIE
KeywordPunjab Province Pakistan Passive Air Samplers Source Identification Source Apportionment Spatial-distribution Kathmandu Valley Emission Factors North China Pahs Soils
WOS Research AreaEnvironmental Sciences & Ecology
WOS SubjectEnvironmental Sciences
Cooperation Status国际
ISSN0048-9697
Department环境变化与地表过程重点实验室
PublisherELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Citation statistics
Cited Times:11[WOS]   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.itpcas.ac.cn/handle/131C11/8704
Collection图书馆
Corresponding AuthorWang, XP (Wang, Xiaoping)
Affiliation1.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Tibetan Plateau Res, Key Lab Tibetan Environm Changes & Land Surface P, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China;
2.CAS Ctr Excellence Tibetan Plateau Earth Sci, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China;
3.Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Sch Sci, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China;
4.Kathmandu Univ, Dhulikhel, Nepal.
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Pokhrel, B ,Gong, P ,Wang, XP ,et al. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the urban atmosphere of Nepal: Distribution, sources, seasonal trends, and cancer risk[J]. SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT ,2018,618(0):1583-1590.
APA Pokhrel, B ,Gong, P ,Wang, XP ,Wang, CF ,&Gao, SP .(2018).Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the urban atmosphere of Nepal: Distribution, sources, seasonal trends, and cancer risk.SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT ,618(0),1583-1590.
MLA Pokhrel, B ,et al."Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the urban atmosphere of Nepal: Distribution, sources, seasonal trends, and cancer risk".SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT  618.0(2018):1583-1590.
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