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Temporal and Spatial Characteristics of Precipitation and Temperature in Punjab, Pakistan
Nawaz, Z (Nawaz, Zain)1,2; Li, X (Li, Xin)3,4; Chen, YY (Chen, Yingying)3,4; Guo, YL (Guo, Yanlong)3; Wang, XF (Wang, Xufeng)1,2; Nawaz, N (Nawaz, Naima)5
Source PublicationWATER

Identifying the changes in precipitation and temperature at a regional scale is of great importance for the quantification of climate change. This research investigates the changes in precipitation and surface air temperature indices in the seven irrigation zones of Punjab Province during the last 50 years; this province is a very important region in Pakistan in terms of agriculture and irrigated farming. The reliability of the data was examined using double mass curve and autocorrelation analysis. The magnitude and significance of the precipitation and temperature were visualized by various statistical methods. The stations' trends were spatially distributed to better understand climatic variability across the elevation gradient of the study region. The results showed a significant warming trend in annual T-min (minimum temperature) and T-mean (mean temperature) in different irrigation zones. However, T-max (maximum temperature) had insignificant variations except in the high elevation Thal zone. Moreover, the rate of T-min increased faster than that of T-max, resulting in a reduction in the diurnal temperature range (DTR). On a seasonal scale, warming was more pronounced during spring, followed by that in winter and autumn. However, the summer season exhibited insignificant negative trends in most of the zones and gauges, except in the higher-altitude Thal zone. Overall, Bahawalpur and Faisalabad are the zones most vulnerable to warming annually and in the spring, respectively. Furthermore, the elevation-dependent trend (EDT) indicated larger increments in T-max for higher-elevation (above 500 m a.s.l.) stations, compared to the lower-elevation ones, on both annual and seasonal scales. In contrast, the T-min showed opposite trends at higher- and lower-elevation stations, while a moderate increase was witnessed in T-mean trends from lower to higher altitude over the study region. An increasing trend in DTR was observed at higher elevation, while a decreasing trend was noticed at the lower-elevation stations. The analysis of precipitation data indicated wide variability over the entire region during the study period. Most previous studies reported no change or a decreasing trend in precipitation in this region. Conversely, our findings indicated the cumulative increase in annual and autumn precipitation amounts at zonal and regional level. However, EDT analysis identified the decrease in precipitation amounts at higher elevation (above 1000 m a.s.l.) and increase at the lower-elevation stations. Overall, our findings revealed unprecedented evidence of regional climate change from the perspectives of seasonal warming and variations in precipitation and temperature extremes (T-max and T-min) particularly at higher-elevation sites, resulting in a variability of the DTR, which could have a significant influence on water resources and on the phenology of vegetation and crops at zonal and station level in Punjab.

Subject AreaWater Resources
WOS IDWOS:000488834400179
Indexed BySCI
KeywordLong-term Trends Extreme Precipitation Minimum Temperatures Air-temperature Climate-change Maximum Variability Himalaya Range River
WOS Research AreaWater Resources
WOS SubjectWater Resources
Cooperation Status国际
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Document Type期刊论文
Corresponding AuthorChen, YY (Chen, Yingying)
Affiliation1.Chinese Acad Sci, Key Lab Remote Sensing Gansu Prov, Northwest Inst Ecoenvironm & Resources, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu, Peoples R China;
2.Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China;
3.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Tibetan Plateau Res, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China;
4.CAS Ctr Excellence Tibetan Plateau Earth Sci, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China;
5.Univ Agr Faisalabad, Dept Rural Sociol, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan.
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Nawaz, Z ,Li, X ,Chen, YY ,et al. Temporal and Spatial Characteristics of Precipitation and Temperature in Punjab, Pakistan[J]. WATER,2019,11(9):1916.
APA Nawaz, Z ,Li, X ,Chen, YY ,Guo, YL ,Wang, XF ,&Nawaz, N .(2019).Temporal and Spatial Characteristics of Precipitation and Temperature in Punjab, Pakistan.WATER,11(9),1916.
MLA Nawaz, Z ,et al."Temporal and Spatial Characteristics of Precipitation and Temperature in Punjab, Pakistan".WATER 11.9(2019):1916.
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