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学科主题: 地理学::自然地理学
题名: 珠峰与纳木那尼峰地区冰川变化的遥感监测研究
作者: 仲振维
答辩日期: 2009
导师: 叶庆华
专业: 自然地理学
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
学位: 硕士
关键词: 遥感 ;  全球变化 ;  冰川变化 ;  珠峰地区 ;  纳木那尼峰地区 ;  数字高程模型
索取号: S000017
部门归属: 图书馆
摘要: 在全球变暖的环境背景下,喜马拉雅地区冰川对全球变化的响应十分明显。遥感和地理信息系统科学的发展,为冰川变化研究提供了强有力的技术支持。本文以珠峰和纳木那尼峰地区为例,基于系列遥感影像、地形图和基础DEM数据,研究喜马拉雅山脉典型地区的冰川变化特征。研究结果表明, 近几十年来,珠峰和纳木纳尼峰地区冰川退缩显著,但各个时期冰川退缩的速率不同,珠峰地区冰川退缩波动变化,而在纳木那尼峰地区冰川则加速退缩。 本文以纳木那尼峰地区为例,比较不同区域内(如山体阴影区、冰川末端区等)各种冰川提取方法,综合各种方法的优点,对纳木那尼峰地区的冰川进行分区分类。通过比较比值法和NDSI指数法在不同特征区域上冰川提取的效果,表明当比值影像在阈值取1.3时,提取阴影中的冰川范围较准确;但在光照条件较好的地区和冰川末端,该阈值提取的冰川范围偏小。当NDSI影像的阈值取-0.1时,冰川末端信息提取的效果较好,而且在光照条件比较好的地区,提取效果也好于比值法,但是这种方法提取阴影中冰川范围的结果较差。本文综合了各种方法的优点,提取该地区的冰川面积。 冰川变化不仅包括冰川面积的变化,而且也包括冰面高程的变化,后者的研究往往需要结合DEM数据,本文尝试利用立体像对生成DEM,讨论珠峰地区的冰面高程变化。结果显示,利用PRISM影像生成DEM的误差较大,不能直接用于冰面高程的变化分析,本文通过校正、减小了生成DEM的误差,使校正后DEM精度明显提高。最后,结合校正后的2006年PRISM DEM数据和1974年DEM数据,发现,2006年珠峰地区冰面平均海拔高程比1974年有所下降。 结合1970年到2005年定日县和普兰县气象站的观测数据可知,珠峰地区和纳木那尼峰地区年均气温均呈现波动上升趋势,与全球变暖的趋势一致;两地的年降水量波动变化,总体呈现下降趋势。两地的冰川变化对气候变化响应明显。此外,通过气象数据分析可知:气温升高,降水量下降是这两个地区冰川退缩的主要原因。
英文摘要: Glaciers in the Himalayas retreat obviously in the global climate warming nowadays. The development of remote sensing and geographic information system provide more efficient techniques for glacier research. Our research focuses on glacier changes in Mt. Qomolangma region and Naimona’nyi region of the Himalayas on the Tibetan Plateau using remote sensing technology. It shows that the glaciers in the two regions both retreated obviously in recent decades. It also indicates that the recession rate varied in spatial in different period, e.g., glaciers in different altitude, slope and aspect change at a different rate. What’s more, glacier retreat is also different in Mt. Qomolangma and Naimona’nyi region. According to bands ratio and NDSI method from ASTER image in 2003 in the Mt. Naimona’nyi region, we find that glacier classifications from bands ratio method is more accurate than that of NDSI in the shadow when the threshold is set to 1.3. However, glacier delineation is smaller in good lighted regions and glacier terminus. When the NDSI is set to value of -0.1, glacier classification from NDSI is better at glacier terminus and good lighted areas. Therefore, taking the advantages of the above different methods in different areas, we integrate glacier classification results from the advanced method in different region together to get the glacier area in the Mt. Naimona’nyi region in 2003. Glacier changes not only in coverage but also in thickness, which often require a comparison between different DEMs. This research generated PRISM DEM and ASTER DEM from satellite stereo images. The elevation changes of glaciers in the Mt. Qomolangma region are analyzed in the research. The results show that the generated DEM from stereo images can not be directly used in calculation of glacier thickness changes due to the big error/bias. This paper discusses a method to reduce the generated PRISM DEM errors/bias. The result shows that the accuracy of the PRISM DEM improves after correction. Finally, this paper shows that, compared with the DEM in 1974, the average altitude on glaciers declined in the Mt.. Qomolangma region in 2006. Meteorological data in Pulan and Dingri station from 1970 to 2005 show that the average annual temperature fluctuated and increased in past several decades. It is in agreement with the global warming. However, the annual precipitation decreased. Glacier changes in the two regions show a significant correlation to the climate change. The meteorological data analysis shows that glacier retreat is due to the rising temperature and the decreasing precipitation.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.itpcas.ac.cn/handle/131C11/1210
Appears in Collections:图书馆_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
仲振维.珠峰与纳木那尼峰地区冰川变化的遥感监测研究[硕士].北京.中国科学院研究生院.2009
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