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学科主题: 地理学::自然地理学
题名: 水文气象学方法估算喜马拉雅北坡冰川流域物质平衡
作者: 汪奎奎
答辩日期: 2009
导师: 刘景时
专业: 自然地理学
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
学位: 硕士
关键词: 熵原理 ;  水文气象方法 ;  冰川物质平衡 ;  卡鲁雄曲 ;  喜马拉雅 ;  气候变化
索取号: S000019
部门归属: 图书馆
摘要: 冰川是中国西北干旱地区最宝贵的淡水资源,不仅是区域社会经济发展稳定的基础,也是生态环境必要的、有机的组成部分。在全球变暖的大环境下,冰川日益退缩,这对以冰川融水为主的河流造成严重影响。喜马拉雅山是我国以及印度、东南亚很多河流的发源地,冰雪融水补给占的比重很大,冰川消融对气候变化比较敏感,但在喜马拉雅山北坡冰川物质平衡研究较少。本文选取我国喜马拉雅山一侧唯一具有长期水文气象观测资料的卡鲁雄曲为典型区域,根据高亚洲地区山地冰川的水文和气象特征,推导出一组以水文、气象观测数据估算流域平均物质平衡的公式,恢复了1983~2006年卡鲁雄曲流域冰川平均物质平衡各分量的逐年值序列,并用SPSS软件对计算结果进行了统计分析: ⑴ 卡鲁雄曲流域径流5月和6月以冰川融水补给为主,冰川融水比例的多年平均值分别为78.4%和94.7%。7~10月,流域径流由冰川融水和降水共同补给,冰川融水比例的多年平均值为63%。冰川融水年贡献率的多年平均值为60.7%。 ⑵ 在1983~2006年的24年里,卡鲁雄曲流域冰川物质平衡的多年平均值为-73mm/a,前12年(1983~1994年)多年平均值为-20mm/a,后12年(1995~2006年)多年平均值为-125mm/a,且1986、1998和2005年出现较大的波动,冰川物质平衡值分别为:212mm、-591mm和-253mm,冰川消融逐步加剧。 ⑶ 卡鲁雄曲流域冰川物质平衡的动态变化主要由强烈消融期(5~9月)的温度引起,二者的相关系数达到-0.786,并具有很好的线性关系:MB=-331.8T+2746.5.
英文摘要: Glacier is one of the most important water resources in the Northwest of China. It is not only the base of local economy, but also the indispensable and organic part of Entironment. Glaciers are retreating more quickly because of the Global warming. This will have important effect to the rivers which are supplied by glaciers. Himalayas is the headstream of many famous rivers in China and the Indian continent. These rivers are mainly supplied by glacier and snow melting, they are very sensitive to the climate change. Only few research about the mass balance of glacier have been done. The glacier-fed Karuxung catchment is a typical and unique area with a long term observations in the Tibet-Himalayas since 1983. A group of expressions, which can be used to compute the mass balance of glacier based on hydrological and meteorological observation data, could be deduced according to the glacier hydrology and climate characteristics of the distribution in China. Using the conceptual method, the components of the mass balance of the glaciers in the Karuxung from 1983 to 2006 was estimated. The result shows that: In recent 24 years, the glaciers in Karuxung area is turning to retreat more quickly; the averaged mass balance was -73mm/a, it was -22mm/a in the first 12 years (1983 to 1994), and reduces to -125mm/a in the last 12 years (1995 to 2006). The mass balance of glacier presents a greater fluctuation in 1986、1998 and 2005 respectively, with numbers of 212mm、-591mm and -253mm. After analyzing the reason of the change of the mass balance of the glaciers, it was found that the main reason was rising temperature of May to September. There was a negative linear correlation between the mass balance of the glaciers and the summer average temperature:MB=-331.8T+2746.5,and the correlation coefficient reached to -0.786.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.itpcas.ac.cn/handle/131C11/1212
Appears in Collections:图书馆_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
汪奎奎.水文气象学方法估算喜马拉雅北坡冰川流域物质平衡[硕士].北京.中国科学院研究生院.2009
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